post-normal science for natural conservation

In order to addressing the more and more serious environmental issues which caused by rapid development of technology and economy, the wide range of knowledge need to be involved in environmental decision making particularly post-normal science. Post-normal science

Conservation of species and ecosystems is a major global trend that has developed over the last 50 years in response to increasing evidence of environmental degradation associated with human activity (Primack 1993). However, due to the complexity of biodiversity loss, to some extent, biodiversity conservation policies is not very successful because we also loss large number of species. In my opinion, the major restriction for conservation implementation is that our level of understanding of ecosystem level ecology is insufficient, because ecosystems and their components are highly dynamic, complex and unpredictable (Kay et al. 1999). Therefore, natural conservation need post-normal knowledge because a range of urgent problems cannot be adequately addressed by current scientific knowledge or methods, relies heavily on practitioners who are not scientific experts where decisions made may have substantial repercussions regarding human lives and livelihoods, and in which laypersons from a range of backgrounds have a stake.

Overall, to some certain extent, environmental issue is complex and need different knowledge and method need to be involved. Natural conservation as an example to show due to the uncertainty of normal science, post-normal science need to be consider in the environmental decision making as well as all level of knowledge and information are useful.

reference list:

Kay, J. J., Regier, H. A., Boyle, M., & Francis, G. (1999). An ecosystem approach for sustainability: addressing the challenge of complexity. Futures, 31, 721-742

Primack, R. B. (1993). Essentials of conservation biology. Sunderland, Mass: Sinauer associates.




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