In recent decades, with the increase awareness of environmental issue, achieve the sustainable development of environment is necessary. it is apparent that environmental problems are complex because environment comprises many components, numerous processes and complex interconnections and feedback mechanisms (Harding, 1998). Furthermore, the most importing concern is uncertainty and unpredictability in the dynamics of complex system of environment. different sources of uncertainty like incomplete knowledge, wrong type of knowledge, ignorance, misunderstanding of dynamic system, human choice and interactions, surprise and emergence and non-linear interactions all need to consider in environmental protection.
Adaptive management (AM), is a structured, iterative process, aimed at reducing uncertainty and ensuring public awareness and accountability in management decision. The Key features of AM include: Iterative decision-making, Feedback between monitoring and decision, explicit characterization of system uncertainty through multi-model inference, Embracing uncertainty as a way of building understanding. Therefore, adaptive management can be a effective method to overcome uncertainty while enhance the implementation of policy.
Using completing land use in china as an example, Presently, China has established good laws and policies to manage protect and promote efficient land use, but there is a crucial need for reinforcement. China’s Farmland Preservation Law is one sided and requires same level of protection at all levels regardless of the diverse nature of the country. There is the need for establishment of laws that suits different regions based on their level of urbanization, land productivity and demand for land. Up till now, farmland policies in China were created through a top-down approach, meaning, there is not enough room for discussions and participation among the stakeholders at regional levels prior to decision making. Therefore, there is the need for more adaptive policies, including an inter-jurisdictional (local, state, national level) process and a bottom – up approach in policy and decision making (Dovers, 2001).
Dovers, S., (2001), Institutions for sustainability, Tela series, The Australian conservation foundation. Pp3, 13-18, 24-31
Harding, R. (1998). Environmental decision-making. Leichhardt, N.S.W.: Federation Press.